Attitude . Graphics . Drawing Examples
Design in Six Approaches:
There are six ways to design an open space, when layout the space, just follow the red grid on the right, the design shape can easily be obtained.
Arc and Tangent
Design Principles & Tips
1. Parallel Lines
Two lines that are adjacent and parallel to each other. This helps to create harmony and unity in design.
2. Perpendicular Intersection
Two lines that intersect at a 90 degree angle. This provides maximum use of space, gives a strong bold feeling and is easier to construct when built.
3. Vanish to a Point
Lines that vanish to a common point. This creates a rhythm and focal point that is dynamic and subconsciously looked for.
4. Line Up
Elements in the space that line up. This will create a more organized, straight, clean, systematic, and eye pleasing effect. (or offset elements further apart for better composition.)
An object that is projected or recessed from other elements, such as a step to a planter. This gives a more three dimensional appearance by the shadows it casts, thus creating zig-zag and interest. This method is also more durable when constructed.
6. Width Variations
Spaces that vary in width (walkways or planters in a plaza area). This creates an interesting, mysterious and zig-zag design.
7. Heigth Variations
Elements that vary in height. This creates a vertical zig-zag, and gives an interest to a space. Height variations can be obtained through the use of steps, planters, canopies, poles, trees, and fountains.
8. Size Variations
Same shapes repeated at various sizes. This is used to create interest, contrast, and rhythm.
9. Repeat Shape
A shape that is repeated in the same size. This will create rhythm and harmony.
10. Proportional Method
Proportional methods include the Golden Means theory (a rectangle with a 1 to 1.618 ratio), and the Fabinitz theory (a compounded curve with a 1 to 2 or less ratio). These methods can be used to achieve correctly proportioned spaces.
11. Compound Curve
A compound curve uses various size circles without a straight line in between them. This creates a smooth and flowing design.
12. Material Connect
Use of the material such as a paving pattern to tie spaces together. This creates unity, totality, mass/void, and eye pleasing effect.
13. Avoid False Implied Line
Avoid continuous repetition of a shape which will falsely imply a line that conflicts with an adjacent line. This will break the principle of parallel line discussed earlier.
14. Avoid Spotty Elements
Avoid spotty elements in the design. This often creates visual chaos through random placement of trees, planters, benches, and paving patterns, thus losing the principle of focal point and mass/void.
15. Avoid Sharp Corners
Avoid using sharp corners in design. They are more expensive to build, more hazardous, and collect trash easily.
16. Avoid Recognizable Shapes
Avoid using recognizable shapes that simulate the shape of a life form that is familiar to people. The shape of a creative design should be original rather than derived from familiar shapes (such as a shape simulating a dog, kidney, face of a person, etc.).
17. Avoid Small/Wrong Scale
Avoid small spaces in a design. A small space is out of scale, and becomes impractical and unreal, such as a 2 foot wide planter, sidewalk, or fountain.
An axis is a main, open path that gives a sense of direction, draws one in, and helps to accent a focal point.
19. Focal Point
A focal point is a feature attraction that is created to lure people into a space, such as the use of fountains, sculpture, etc. A focal point does not necessarily have to be located in the center of a space.
A contrast is a gentle and workable conflict between elements, used to accent a focal point and create interest. These elements include opposite shapes, varying texture, size, color, line, and value.
An asymmetrical design is a proportionally balanced design, that does not use symmetry (a mirror image of one side). Asymmetry will create interest and will avoid becoming stagnant.
Mass and void are two groups of elements that allow a design to work, and can help to avoid spottiness. For example, a group of trees is a mass where as grass is a void.
Zig-Zag is used to avoid monotony in the overall shape of the design. This can add interest and good composition to a project.